[D-G] color In 1911
pretzelworld at gmail.com
Sat Dec 31 15:44:06 PST 2005
An orrery is a mechanical device that illustrates the relative
positions and motions of the planets and moons in the solar system in
heliocentric model. They are typically driven by a large clockwork
mechanism with a globe representing the Sun at the centre, and with a
planet at the end of each of the arms.
A normal mechanical clock could be used to produce an extremely simple
orrery with the Sun in the centre, Earth on the minute hand and
Jupiter on the hour hand; Earth would make 12 revolutions around the
Sun for every 1 revolution of Jupiter.
The first orrery was built circa 1704 by George Graham. Graham gave
the first model (or its design) to the celebrated instrument maker
John Rowley of London to make a copy for Prince Eugene of Savoy.
Rowley was commissioned to make another copy for his patron Charles
Boyle, 4th Earl of Orrery, thus the name.
Around 255 BC Eratosthenes invented the armillary sphere, which was
widely used until the invention of the orrery in the 18th century.
An armillary sphere (also known as a spherical astrolabe, armilla, or
armil) is a model of the celestial sphere. Its name comes from the
Latin armilla (circle, bracelet), since it has a skeleton made of
graduated metal circles linking the poles and representing the
equator, the ecliptic, meridians and parallels. Usually a ball
representing the Earth or, later, the Sun is placed in its center. the
Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) constructed several of such
Eratosthenes ('Ερατοσθένης) (276 BC - 194 BC) was a Greek
mathematician, geographer and astronomer. His contemporaries nicknamed
him 'Beta' because he was the second best in the world in many
He is credited by Cleomedes in On the Circular Motions of the
Celestial Bodies with having calculated the Earth's circumference ca.
240 BC, using trigonometry and knowledge of the angle of elevation of
the Sun at noon in Alexandria and Syene (now Aswan, Egypt).
He also knew, from measurement, that in his hometown of Alexandria,
the angle of elevation of the Sun would be 7° south of the zenith at
the same time. Assuming that Alexandria was due north of Syene-
Alexandria is in fact on a more westerly longitude- he concluded that
the distance from Alexandria to Syene must be 7/360 of the total
circumference of the Earth.
The distance between the cities was known from caravan travellings to
be about 5,000 stadia.
He was an appointed librarian of the Alexandrian library and was a
good friend to Archimedes.
Eratosthenes used the ancient city Syene as the originating point for
that measured arc which estimate of the Earth's circumference. Today,
Syene is known as Aswan (24°05′N 32°56′E, population 200,000). It
stands on the east bank of the Nile at the first cataract.
Aswan is one of the driest inhabited places in the world; as of early
2001, the last rain here was 6 years ago. In Nubian settlements they
generally do not bother to roof all of the rooms in their houses.
Kitchener's Island (now locally known in Arabic as Geziret an-Nabatat,
which translates as "island of plants"; also known as Plantation
Island) is a small, oval-shaped island in the Nile at Aswan, Egypt.
The island was given to Lord Kitchener as a thank-you for his services
in the Sudan Campaign (1896-1898).
With the aid of the Ministry of Irrigation, Kitchener rapidly
transformed the small (approx. 750-meter-long) island into a paradise
of exotic trees and plants and carefully planned walkways. It later
passed into the property of the Egyptian government and was used as a
research station for examining different food and cash crops. Today,
biological research station is present at the southern tip, which is
closed to visitors, but the rest of the island is open to the public
Before he was Lord Kitchener he was just Kitchener, Kitchener quite
possibly prevented war between France and Britain when he dealt firmly
but non-violently with the French military expedition to claim
Fashoda, in what became known as the Fashoda Incident (1998). he was
created Baron Kitchener, of Khartoum and of Aspall in the County of
Suffolk, on 18 November 1898 for his successes, and began a programme
restoring good governance to the Sudan. The programme had a strong
foundation based on education, Gordon Memorial College being its
centrepiece, and not simply for the children of the local elites -
children from anywhere could apply to study.
He ordered the mosques of Khartoum rebuilt and instituted reforms
which recognised Friday - the Muslim holy day - as the official day of
rest, and guaranteed freedom of religion to all citizens of the Sudan.
He went so far as to prevent evangelical Christian missionaries from
attempting to convert Muslims to Christianity. He also reformed the
debt laws, preventing rapacious moneylenders from stripping away all
assets of impoverished farmers, guaranteeing them five acres (20 000
m²) of land to farm for themselves and the tools to farm with. In 1899
Kitchener was presented with a small island in the Nile at Aswan as in
gratitude for his services.
During the Second Boer War (1899–1902), Kitchener arrived with Lord
Roberts and the massive British reinforcements of December 1899.
Kitchener was made overall commander in November 1900 following
Roberts' removal due to illness. In a brutal campaign, these
strategies removed civilian support from the Boers by destroying Boer
farms, building blockhouses, and moving all these civilians into the
first concentration camps. Conditions in these concentration camps,
which had been conceived by Roberts as a form of humanitarian aid to
the families whose farms he had destroyed, began to rapidly degenerate
- they led to wide opprobrium both at home and abroad.
Following this, Kitchener was made Commander-in-Chief in India
(1902–1909), where he reconstructed the greatly disorganised Indian
army soon to face ghandi.
He was created Earl Kitchener, of Khartoum and of Broome in the County
of Kent, on 29 June 1914. Unusually, provision was made for the title
to be passed on to his brother and nephew, since Kitchener was not
married and had no children.
At the outset of World War I, Prime Minister Herbert Henry Asquith
quickly had Lord Kitchener appointed Secretary of State for War.
Against cabinet opinion, Kitchener correctly predicted a long war that
would last at least three years, require huge new armies to defeat
Germany, and suffer huge casualties before the end would come.
A massive recruitment campaign began, which soon featured a
distinctive poster of himself, taken from a magazine front cover. It
has proved to be one of the most enduring images of World War I.
On 5 June 1916, while en route to the Russian port of Arkhangelsk, the
armoured cruiser HMS Hampshire struck a mine during a Force 9 gale and
sank west of the Orkney Islands. Kitchener, his staff, and 643 of the
crew of 655 were drowned or died of exposure. His body was never
found. The same day, the last Division of Kitchener's New Army crossed
the channel to take up its positions in Flanders and France.
Kitchener's position as was quickly filled by future prime minister,
Lloyd George, who was shooting up the ranks. eventually Lloyd George
steered the country politically through the war, and represented
Britain at the Versailles Peace Conference, clashing with both French
Premier Clemenceau and US Prez Woodrow Wilson. The political climate
in England at the time of Kitchener's death was intense and it is
eerie to imagine it haunted by Kitcheners ghost coming out of the fog
casting shadows of slaves working in concentration camps and james
bond blood-diamonds, funding the terrorists and the anti-terrorists.
The Defence of the Realm Act (DORA) was passed in the United Kingdom
on 8 August 1914, during the early weeks of World War I. It gave the
government wide-ranging powers during the war period, such as
censorship and the power to requisition buildings or land needed for
the war effort. Some of the things the British public were not allowed
to do include; flying a kite, lighting a bonfire, buying binoculars,
feeding wild animals bread, discuss naval and military matters or buy
alcohol on public transport. Alcoholic beverages were watered down.
Though some of the things DORA did may seem strange, they did have
their purposes. Flying a kite or lighting a bonfire could attract
Zeppelins, feeding wild animals was a waste of food since rationing
was introduced in 1917. The first person to be arrested under DORA was
John Maclean, a Marxist and Clydeside revolutionary, for uttering
statements calculated predjudiced against recruiting. He was fined £5
but refused and spent 5 nights in prison.
The DORA ushered in a variety of authoritarian social control
mechanisms including some that are still in use today, such as the
Winston Churchill supported British Summer Time which was enacted in
May 1916 as a novel device for boosting wartime production.
Synchronization for orchestrated battle maneuvers.
British Summer Time (BST), known in Ireland as Irish Summer Time
(IST), is the daylight sav (DST) in effect in the United Kingdom and
Republic of Ireland between the last Sunday in March and the last
Sunday in October each year.
It is sometimes asserted that DST was first proposed by Benjamin
Franklin in a letter to the editors of the Journal of Paris. However,
the article was humorous; Franklin was not proposing DST, but rather
that people should get up and go to bed earlier.
It was first seriously proposed by William Willett in the "Waste of
Daylight", published in 1907, but he was unable to get the British
government to adopt it despite considerable lobbying.
The idea of daylight saving time was first put into practice by the
German government during the First World War between April 30 and
October 1, 1916. Shortly afterward, the United Kingdom followed suit,
first adopting DST between May 21 and October 1, 1916. Then on March
19, 1918, the U.S. Congress established several time zones (which were
already in use by railroads and most cities since 1883) and made
daylight saving time official.
Charles Mallory Hatfield (c. 1875-1958) was a US "rainmaker". He was
born in Fort Scott, Kansas in 1875 or 1876. His family moved to
southern California in 1880's.
In 1904, promoter Fred Binney begun a public relations campaign for
Hatfield. Number of Los Angeles ranchers saw his ads in newspapers and
promised Hatfield $50 to produce rain. In April, Hatfield and his
brother Paul climbed to Mount Lowe and built a tower where Hatfield
stood and released his mixture into the air
In 1915 San Diego city council, pressured by Diego Wide Awake
Improvement Club, approached Hatfield to produce rain to fill Morena
Dam reservoir. Hatfield offered to produce rain for free, then charge
$1,000 per inch between 40-50 fifty inches and free again over 50
inches. Council voted four against one for this $10,000 fee, payable
when the reservoir was filled. Hatfield, with his brother, built a
20-foot tower beside the Lake Morena and was ready early in the New
On January 5, 1916 heavy rain began - and grew gradually heavier by
day. Dry riverbeds filled to the point of flooding. Worsening flood
destroyed bridges, marooned trains and cut phone cables - not to
mention flooding homes and farms. Two dams, Sweetwater Dam and one at
the Lower Otay Lake, overflowed. Rain stopped January 20 but continued
to pour two days later. On January 27 Lower Otay Dam broke, increasing
the devastation and reportedly caused about 20 deaths (accounts vary
for the exact number).
Hatfield talked to the press February 4 and said that the damage was
not his fault and that the city should have taken adequate
precautions. Hatfield had fulfilled the conditions of his contract -
filled the reservoir - but the city council refused to pay the money,
unless Hatfield would take liability for damages; there were already
claims worth $3.5 million. In two trials, the rain was ruled the act
of God but Hatfield continued the suit until 1938 when the court threw
the case out. Besides, there was no written contract.
More information about the Deleuze-Guattari